CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Urban Livelihoods

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 8 Urban Livelihoods

Working On The Street

  • Many people in urban areas earn their livelihood by working on the street. For example; in a survey of Ahmedabad city, it was found that 12 percent of all the workers in the city were people working on the street.
  • These people sometimes sell things repair them or provide a service. They are not employed by anyone and work on their own.
  • Their shops are temporary structures that are sometimes dismantled by the police. So, they have no security. There are also some parts of the city, where they are prohibited from entering. There are vendors who sell things that are mostly prepared at home by their families. For example, those who sell food or snacks on the street, prepare most of these at home.
  • Street vending was earlier considered as an obstruction to traffic and to people walking. But, now it is recognized as a general benefit and as a right of people to earn their livelihood.
  • Hawking zones for hawkers2 have been suggested by the government in towns and cities. It has also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely. Hawkers need to be part of committees that are set up to make such decisions relating to them.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In The Market

  • In the urban market, there are a variety of shops selling sweets, toys, electronic goods, etc. The market also has small offices and shops that provide services such as banks, courier services, and others.
  • There are several businesspersons in the market who manage their own shops. These shops may be small or large and they sell different things.
  • The businesspersons are not employed by anyone but they employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers. Their shops are permanent and are given a license to do business by the Municipal Corporation.
  • The Municipal Corporation also decides on which day of the week the market has to remain closed.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In The Factory-Workshop Area

  • Many urban people are engaged in factories such as government factories. These factory people are employed on a casual basis i.e. they are required to come as and when the employer needs them.
  • They all are employed when the employer gets large orders or during certain seasons. At other times of the year, they have to find some other work.
  • Jobs are not permanent in a factory. If workers complain about their pay or working conditions, they are asked to leave. They have no job security, or protection if there is ill-treatment. They are also expected to work very long hours.
  • For example, in the cloth mill units, the workers work on day and night shifts, with each shift lasting 12 hours.

Knowledge Plus: Working in a call center is a new form of employment in big cities. A call center is a centralized office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/ customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In the Office Area

  • Most of the people in the city work in offices, factories, and government departments where they are employed as regular and permanent workers.
  • They get a regular salary and their work is clearly identified. They attend their office or factory regularly. Unlike casual workers, they will not be asked to leave if the factory does not have much work.

Being a permanent worker, they also get other benefits such as

  • Savings for Old Age A part of their salary is kept in a fund with the government. They will earn interest on these savings. After their retirement, they will get this money and can then live their life well.
  • Holidays They get off on Sundays and national holidays. They also get annual leave.
  • Medical Facilities They get medical facilities for themselves and family. The medical expenses are paid by their company up to a certain amount. They are also given medical leave without any cut in their salary when they fall ill.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Major Domains Of The Earth

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Social Science Chapter 5 Major Domains Of The Earth

The surface of the Earth is a complex zone, in which the three main components of the environment meet, interact and overlap each other. These three main components of the environment are

  1. Lithosphere
  2. Hydrosphere
  3. Atmosphere

In the Greek language, Lithos means stone, Atoms means vapour, and Hudor means water.


  • The solid portion of the Earth on which we live is called the lithosphere. It comprises the rocks of the Earth’s crust and the thin layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which sustain life.
  • There are two main divisions of the Earth’s surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents and the massive waterbodies are called ocean basins.
  • All the oceans of the world are connected with one another. The level of seawater remains the same everywhere in the world. The elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea, which is taken as zero.
  • The highest mountain peak of the world is Mount Everest which is 8,848 metres above sea level.
  • The deepest point of the Earth is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 11,022 metres.

Knowledge Plus: Edmund Hillary (New Zealand) and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa (India) were the first men to climb Mt. Everest on 29th May 1953.

  • Junko Tabei (Japan) was the first woman to reach the summit on 16th May 1975.
  • Bachendri Pal was the first Indian woman to climb Mt. Everest on 23rd May 1984.

Continents: There are seven major continents that are separated by large water bodies. These are discussed below

Asia is the largest continent and covers about one-third of the total land area of the world. Asia lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent.

Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the West. The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia.

Europe It lies to the West of Asia and is much smaller in size than Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides.

Africa is the second largest continent after Asia.

  • A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • It is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass.
  • The 0° latitude or Equator passes almost through the middle of this continent.
  • The largest hot desert in the world, the Sahara Desert, is located in Africa. The Nile River, which is the longest river in the world, flows through Africa. It is surrounded by oceans and seas on all sides.

North America is the third largest continent in the world. It lies completely in the Northern and Western hemispheres.

  • It is surrounded by three oceans. It is linked with South America by a narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama.

South America It lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. The world’s longest mountain range, Andes runs through its length from North to South.

  • The world’s largest river Amazon is located in this continent.

Australia It lies completely in the Southern hemisphere and is the smallest continent. It is also called an island continent. It is surrounded by the oceans and seas on all sides.

Antarctica is a huge continent and completely lies in the Southern hemisphere. The South Pole lies almost at the centre of this continent.

  • The continent remains permanently ice-covered due to its position in the South Polar region. There are no permanent human settlements.
  • Many countries have established their research stations in Antarctica. India also has established research stations in Antarctica, named Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 5  Hydrosphere

  • The area covered by water on the Earth’s surface is called the hydrosphere. More than 71 per cent of the Earth is covered with water and 29 per cent with land. The Earth is called the blue planet due to the excess water cover.
  • Hydrosphere consists of water in all its forms including running water in oceans and rivers, ice in glaciers, underground water and water vapour in the atmosphere.
  • More than 97 per cent of the Earth’s water is salty and is present in the oceans. A large proportion of the rest of the water is present in the form of ice sheets and glaciers or underground water. A very small percentage of water is available as fresh water for human consumption.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 5  Oceans

Oceans are a major part of the hydrosphere. They are all interconnected. The ocean waters are always moving. The three main movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides and the ocean currents.

There are five major oceans that are discussed below

Pacific Ocean It is the largest ocean that is spread over one-third of the Earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth, lies in the Pacific Ocean.

  • The shape of the Pacific Ocean is almost circular. It is surrounded by Asia, Australia, North and South America.

Atlantic Ocean It is the second largest ocean. It is S-shaped with a highly irregular coastline, which provides an ideal location for natural harbours and ports.

  • From a trade and commerce point of view, it is the busiest ocean.
  • It is surrounded by the North and South Americas on the Western side, and Europe and Africa on the Eastern side.

Indian Ocean It is the only ocean that is named after a country i.e. India. The shape of the ocean is triangular. It is bound by Asia in the North, by Africa in the West and by Australia in the East.

Southern Ocean It surrounds the Antarctica continent and extends Northward to 60 degrees South latitude.

Arctic Ocean It is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with. the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water, which is called the Bering Strait. It is surrounded by Northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 5  Atmosphere

  • The gaseous layers that surround the Earth are called the Atmosphere where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases are found.
  • This thin cover of air is considered an essential aspect of the planet as it provides the air we breathe and also protects us from the harmful effects of the Sun’s rays.
  • The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 km. It is divided into five layers on the basis of its composition, temperature and other properties.
  • These layers starting from Earth’s surface are called the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere.
  • The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78 per cent) and oxygen (21 per cent) which make up 99 per cent of clean, dry air. It also includes carbon dioxide, argon and other gases which make up the rest 1 per cent of the air.
  • Oxygen is important for breathing and nitrogen is for the growth of living beings. Carbon dioxide is important for the absorption of heat radiated by the Earth to keep it warm and for the respiration of plants.
  • The density of the atmosphere is maximum at the sea level and decreases as going up. The temperature also decreases as going upwards.
  • The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the Earth also varies from place to place. Some experience high pressure and some experience low pressure. Air moves from high pressure to low pressure and the movement of it is called wind.

Knowledge Plus climbers experience problems in breathing due to a decrease in the density of air. Thus, they have to carry with them oxygen cylinders to be able to breathe at high altitudes.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 5  Biosphere – The Domain of Life

  • The word Bios means life. The narrow zone where land, water and air are found together and which contains all forms of life, is called Biosphere.
  • There are several organisms that vary in size, from microbes and bacteria to large mammals. All living organisms are linked to each other and to the biosphere for survival.
  • The living organisms in the biosphere can be broadly divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.
  • The three domains of the Earth that are lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere, are interlinked with each other and affect each other. For example, cutting forests to fulfil our needs of wood, or clearing land for cultivation may lead to the fast removal of soil from slopes.
  • Similarly, Earth’s surface may be changed due to natural calamities like earthquakes, landslides, etc.
  • For example, there could be submergence of land, like the parts of Andaman & Nicobar Islands were submerged under water during the Tsunami.
  • Apart from this, the discharge of wastewater and material into water bodies makes the water unsuitable for human use and damages other forms of life.
  • Air is polluted by emissions from industries, thermal power plants and vehicles. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important constituent of air, but if the amount of CO2 increases, it leads to an increase in global temperatures. This is termed as global warming.
  • Thus, it is essential to limit the use of resources of the Earth to maintain the balance of nature between the domains of the Earth.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Rural Livelihoods

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 7 Rural Livelihoods

  • The rural people earn their living in various ways. Some work on farms, while others earn their living on non-farm activities.
  • The farm activities include preparing the land, sowing, weeding, and harvesting crops. They depend on nature for the growth of these crops. Thus, life revolves around certain seasons.
  • Rural people in different regions of the country grow different crops. However, there are similarities in their life situations and the problems they face.
  • Some families in rural areas have large acres of land, businesses, etc. But most of the small farmers are either agricultural labourers fishing families or crafts persons in the villages. They do not find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Kalpattu Village

  • Kalpattu village is located close to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu. In this village, people are engaged in many non-farm works such as making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, bullock carts, etc.
  • There are also people in the village who provide services like blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, cycle repair mechanics, etc.
  • There are also some shopkeepers and traders. In the main street, which looks like a bazaar, there are small shops such as tea shops, grocery shops, barber shops, a cloth shop, a tailor shop, and two fertilizer and seed shops.
  • There are some people who go to the nearby town to work as construction workers and lorry drivers.
  • The Kalpattu village is surrounded by low hills. Most of the families are dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods.
  • Paddy is the main crop that is grown on irrigated lands. Plants such as coconut groves, cotton, sugarcane, and plantain are also grown in the village, and there are also mango orchards.

Agriculture Labourer in Kalpattu Village:  In Kalpattu village agricultural laborers like Thulasi worked in the fields of large farmers like Ramalingam.

  • They have to work for eight hours in the fields. These people find work only for few times in a year for transplanting, weeding, and harvesting the crop.
  • These people earn very small amounts of money. Apart from working in the fields, the women are also involved in other activities like cooking, cleaning, washing, collecting firewood, fetching water from borewells, etc.
  • Thus, in rural areas, poor families spend most of their time in activities that do not earn them money like collecting firewood, getting water, etc but they have to do them for their household. They need to do these activities as they are not able to survive on the little money they earn.

Small Farmers in Kalpattu Village:  Apart from big farmers, there are also small farmers in Kalpattu village like Sekar who own about 2 acres of land.

  • They do all farm activities on their own. Sometimes, they take the help of other small farmers at the time of harvesting. They take seeds and fertilizers from the traders as a loans.
  • They have to sell some of their produce to the trader at a lower price than the market, to repay this loan. Thus, small farmers in rural areas often borrow money from moneylenders to purchase seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides
  • Sometimes, the crops of the farmers are destroyed if the monsoon does not bring enough rain. When this situation takes place, farmers sometimes are unable to pay back
  • To survive their families, farmers may have to borrow more money and finally, the amount of loans becomes very large. During these times, when they are unable to repay the loan, they are caught in debt.
  • In recent years, the debt has become a major cause of distress among farmers due to which in some areas, many farmers have committed suicide.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India

  • In India, about two out of five rural families are agricultural laborer families. All of them depend on the work they do in other people’s fields to earn a living.
  • A number of them are landless and others may have very small plots of land.
  • In India, 80 percent of the farmers belong to the category of small farmers, who has land, which is barely enough to meet their needs.
  • Only 20 percent of the farmers in India are large farmers. They own most of the land in the villages.
  • A large part of their produce is sold in the market. Many of them have begun other businesses such as shops, moneylending, trading, small factories, etc.
  • Apart from farming, many people are dependent upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing, etc.
  • In some villages in Central India, both farming and collection from the forest, are important sources of livelihood. Collecting mahua, tendu leaves, and honey, for selling to the traders, is an important source of additional income.
  • Similarly, selling milk to the village cooperative society or taking milk to the nearby town may be an important source of livelihood for some families

Terrace Farming in Nagaland: In Chizami village ofPhek district in Nagaland, people of the Chakhesang community do ‘terrace’ cultivation.

In this cultivation, the land on a hill slope is made into flat plots and carved out in steps. The sides of each plot are raised in order to retain water. This method is best for rice cultivation.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 6 Urban Administration

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 6 Urban Administration

A city is much bigger and spread out than a village. In the cities, there is a big organisation called the Municipal Corporation. The works of the Municipal Corporation include the following

  • It ensures that diseases do not spread in the city.
  • It runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
  • It makes gardens and maintains them.
  • In smaller towns, the organisation that carries out these works is called a Municipal Council.

The Ward Councillor And Administrative Scarf

  • The city is divided into different wards, and ward councillors are elected. The complex decisions are taken by groups of councillors who form committees to decide and debate issues. These decisions affect the entire city.
  • For example, if a bus stand needs to be improved, or a crowded marketplace needs to be cleaned regularly, then the committees for water, garbage collection, street lighting, etc decide on the work to be done.
  • When the problems are within a ward, then the people who live in the ward can contact their councillors.
  • The decisions made by councillor’s committees are implemented by the commissioner and the administrative staff.
  • The councillors are elected by the people and the commissioner and administrative staff are appointed. All the ward councillors meet and prepare a budget and the money is spent according to it.
  • There are different departments in the Municipal Corporation for the implementation of different works such as the water department, garbage department, etc.

Source Of Money For Municipal Corporation

  • The Municipal Corporation requires money to provide and run so many services. It collects the money in different ways.
  • A tax is a sum of money that people pay to the government for the services which the government provides. It is of different types such as the property tax, education tax, water tax, etc.
  • Property tax is 25-30 per cent of the money earned by the Municipal Corporation.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 6 A Community Protest

  • When people face any problem in their ward, they can protest for it to the ward councillor.
  • For this, a signed petition is to be submitted to the ward councillor describing the problem. The petitions are forwarded to the Municipal Corporation office which solves the issues.

Sub-contracting: The Municipal Commissioners of several municipalities hire private contractors to collect and process garbage in order to save money which is known as sub-contracting.

The contract workers receive less salary and their job is temporary. They are also exposed to dangerous conditions and do not have access to safety measures.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 1 Understanding Diversity

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 1 Understanding Diversity

  • Human beings are quite diverse or different from each other. There are many ways in which people differ from each other. They look different, may speak different languages, belong to different cultural backgrounds, practice different religious rituals, etc.
  • Apart from these differences, inequality is prevalent in the society. Inequality exists when a person does not have resources and opportunities that are available to other persons.
  • The caste system is a type of inequality according to which, society was divided into different groups depending upon the work that people did and they were supposed to remain in those groups.
  • In some cases, diversity is important as it gives us the opportunity to eat different kinds of foods, celebrate different festivals, wear different clothes, and learn different languages.

Diversity In India

  • India is a diverse country with differences in religion, types of food, languages festivals, etc. Despite these differences, people do many things that are similar but they do them in different ways.
  • In the early times, people traveled from one part of the world to another for different reasons.
  • For example, they traveled in search of people to trade with, in search of new places to settle in, to escape hunger due to famines and drought at their original place, in search of work, or because of war.
  • When they settled down in the new place, they started to change a little and also retain some of their own cultures. This intermixing of cultures led to new and different cultures.
  • It is evident from the history of many places that its culture has been influenced by many different cultures.
  • Diversity also develops when people adapt their lives to the geographical area in which they live. For example, living near the sea is quite different from living in a mountainous area.
  • Hence, the diversity of a region is influenced by the historical and geographical factors. This can be understood through the examples of two different parts of the country Ladakh and Kerala.

Ladakh:  Ladakh is a desert in the mountains of the Eastern part of Jammu and Kashmir where very little agriculture is possible. This is because this region does not receive any rain and is covered with snow for most part of the year.

  • There are very few trees that can grow in the region. For drinking water, people depend on the melting snow during the summer months.
  • People in Ladakh rear sheep and goats. The goats in this region produce pashmina wool which is valued. Pashmina shawls are mainly woven in Kashmir.
  • Ladakh was considered a good trade route because it had many passes through which caravans traveled to Tibet. The caravans carried textiles, spices, raw silk and carpets.
  • Ladakh is also called Little Tibet. Mostly, Muslim and Buddhist people live in Ladakh. Ladakh has a very rich oral tradition of songs and poems.
  • Local versions of the Tibetan national epic, the Kesar Saga, are performed and sung by both Muslims and Buddhists.

Kerala:  Kerala is located in the South-West corner of India. It is surrounded by the sea on one side and hills on the other side.

  • On the hills of Kerala, a number of spices such as pepper, cloves cardamoms, etc are grown. These spices attracted traders.
  • Jewish and Arab traders were the first to come here. It is believed that St. Thomas, the Apostle of Christ, came here nearly 2000 years ago and he is credited with bringing Christianity to India.
  • Ibn Battuta, who traveled to Kerala about seven hundred years ago, wrote a travelogue in which he describes the lives of Muslims and says that they were a highly respectful community.
  • The Portuguese discovered the sea route to India when Vasco da Gama landed with his ship in Kerala.
  • People in Kerala practice different religions such as Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, Buddhism, etc because of historical influences.
  • The main occupation in Kerala is fishing. The nets used for fishing are similar to the Chinese fishing nets and are called cheena-vala.
  • The utensil which is used for frying fish is called cheenachatti and it is believed that the word ‘cheen’ could have come from China.
  • The famous festival celebrated in Kerala is Onam and the boat race is an important part of this festival.

Differences and Similarities between Ladakh and Kerala

  • Ladakh and Kerala are different in terms of their geography, however, the history of both regions was influenced by similar cultures because both the regions were influenced by Chinese and Arab traders.
  • It was the geographical condition of both states that allowed for the cultivation of spices in Kerala and the rearing of sheep for wool in Ladakh. Thus, the history and geography of a place are linked to its cultural life.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 1 Unity In Diversity

  • India is a perfect example of unity in diversity where diversity has been recognized as a source of the country’s strength.
  • When the British ruled over India, men and women both participated in the Indian struggle for freedom even though they were from different religions, cultures, castes, etc.
  • Songs and symbols that emerged during the freedom struggle represent the rich tradition of India’s respect for diversity.
  • The Britishers thought that they would continue to rule over Indians by dividing them because of their differences.
  • However, Indians showed that though they were different, they were united in their fight against the Britishers.
  • In his book ‘The Discovery of India’, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru coined the phrase ‘Unity in diversity’ to describe India.
  • Rabindranath Tagore composed India’s National Anthem which is an expression of the unity of India.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Rural Administration

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics 5 Rural Administration

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Police Station

  • Every police station has an area that comes under its control so that every person in that area can report cases or inform the police about any theft, accident, injury, fight, etc.
  • It is the duty of the police to enquire, investigate, and take action on the cases within its area. Thus, the police maintain law and order in the area.
  • SHO (Station house officer) is the head or individual in charge of the locality police station. He supervises the police station’s activities and is responsible for maintaining law and order in his region.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Maintenance of Land Records

The Patwari is responsible for measuring land and keeping records of land. He/She maintains and updates records of the village. The Patwari is known by different names in villages of different states like Lelchpal, Kanungo, Karamchari, Village Officer, etc.

  • Each Patwari is responsible for a group of villages.
  • The Patwari usually has some methods of measuring agricultural fields. In some places, a long chain is used.
  • The Patwari also collects the revenue from the farmers and informs the government about the crops grown in this area.
  • This is done through the records that are kept and hence, it becomes important for the Patwari to regularly update these records.
  • The revenue department keeps a record of all the activities like farmers changing the crops grown in their fields or someone digging a well somewhere. The senior people in this department supervise Patwari’s work.

Tehsildar:  All the states in India are divided into districts and the districts are further subdivided into tehsils, talukas, etc.

  • The head of district administration is the District Collector and the Tehsildars work under him/her. Tehsildars are also known as the Revenue Officers.
  • The works of Tehsildars are
  • They supervise the work of the Patwaris.
  • They ensure that records are properly kept and land revenue is collected.
  • They have to hear disputes.
  • They ensure that the farmers can easily obtain a copy of their records or the students can easily obtain their caste certificates, etc.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 A New Law

  • In India, previously, Hindu women did not get a share in the family’s agricultural land. After the death of the father, his property was equally divided among sons and only daughters. However, this law was changed.
  • The Hindu Succession Amendment Act, of 2005, came into force according to which sons, daughters, and their mothers can get an equal share in the land. This law is applied to all States and Union Territories of the country and benefits a large number of women.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 4 Panchayati Raj

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 4 Panchayati Raj

Three Levels Of Panchayats

In rural areas, there are three levels of Panchayats. These are

  1. Village Level The first level or tier of democratic government is the Gram Panchayat at the village level. Gram Sabha is an important part of the Gram Panchayat as the Panchs and the Gram Panchayat are answerable to the Gram Sabha.
  2. Block Level The second level or tier is the Block level, which has many Gram Panchayats under it. It is also known as the Janpad Panchayat or the Panchayat Samiti1.
  3.  District Level The third level is the Zila Parishad or the District Panchayat. The Zila Parishad makes developmental plans at the district level. It also regulates the distribution of funds among all the Gram Panchayats with the help of Panchayat Samitis.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 4 The Gram Panchayat

  • Gram Panchayat is a basic governing institution in Indian villages. Every village Panchayat is divided into wards, i.e. smaller areas. Each ward elects a representative who is known as the Ward Member (Panch).
  • The Ward Panchs and the Sarpanch form the Gram Panchayat. The Sarpanch is the Panchayat President who is elected by all the members of the Gram Sabha.
  • The Gram Panchayat is elected for five years. The Gram Panchayat meets regularly and one of its main works is to implement development programs for all villages that come under it.
  • The Gram Panchayat has a Secretary who is also the Secretary of the Gram Sabha. This person is not elected but appointed by the government.
  • The Secretary is responsible for calling the meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat and keeping a record of the proceedings.

Gram Sabha:  The Gram Sabha is a meeting of all adults who live in the area covered by a Panchayat.

  • This area could include only one village or more than one village. Anyone who is 18 years old or more and who has the right to vote, is a member of the Gram Sabha.
  • The first meeting of the Gram Sabha is held after the election of the new Gram Panchayat. The Gram Sabha is the place where all plans for the work of Gram Panchayat are laid down before the people.
  • The Gram Sabha prevents the Panchayat from doing wrong things like misusing money or favoring certain people. It plays an important role in keeping an eye on the elected representatives and in making them responsible to the persons who elected them.

Work Of Gram Panchayat:  The work of the Gram Panchayat has to be approved by the Gram Sabha.

  • In some states, committees like construction and development committees are formed by Gram Sabhas.
  • These include some members of the Gram Sabha and some from the Gram Panchayat who work together to carry out specific tasks.

The work of a Gram Panchayat includes

  • Construction and maintenance of water roads, drainage, school buildings, and other common property resources.
  • Levying and collecting local taxes.
  • Executing government schemes related to generating employment in the village.
  • It is responsible for collecting information about any development works or schemes that could be implemented in the Panchayat. To obtain this information, the Gram Panchayat can approach the Block Development Officer.

Sources of Funds for the Panchayat:  Collection of taxes on houses, marketplaces, etc.

  • Government scheme funds are received through various departments of the government through the Janpad and Zila Panchayat.
  • Donations for community works, etc.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 What Is A Government

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 3 What Is A Government

A government is necessary in every country for making decisions and getting things done. The decisions involve issues like building roads and schools, how to reduce the price of essential goods increasing the supply of electricity, etc.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Levels of Government

The government works at different levels. These levels are

  • National level It is related to the entire country.
  • State level It covers an entire state like Haryana, Assam, etc.
  • Local level It is related to the village administration, town, or locality.

Functions of a Government:  The government is involved in handling social issues like making several programs for the poor. It also does other important things like running the railway services and postal services.

  • It is responsible for protecting the country’s boundaries and maintaining peaceful relations with other countries.
  • It is responsible for ensuring that all its citizens have enough food to eat and have good health facilities.
  • If natural disasters like earthquakes or tsunamis take place, then the government has to organize aid and assistance camps for affected people.
  • Courts are also a part of the government. If there is a dispute or someone has committed a crime, then it will be resolved in court.
  • A government performs all the above functions on behalf of its citizens by exercising leadership, making rules, making decisions, and implementing them among all the people living in its territory.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Laws and the Government

  • The government makes laws and regulations which have to be followed by every citizen in the country. It has the power to enforce or implement its decisions.
  • For example, according to law, if any person is caught driving a vehicle without a license, he/she can either be jailed or fined a large sum of money. Thus, laws need to be enforced for the proper functioning of the government.
  • The citizen can approach the court if a law is not being followed. For example, if someone is not hired for a job because of his religion or caste, he/she may approach the court and claim that the law is not being followed

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Types of Government

There are two types of government. These are discussed below

Democracy:  In a democracy, people elect the government through elections in which they vote for particular persons and elect them. Once elected, these people form the

In a democracy, the government has to explain each of its actions and defend its decisions to the people.

Monarchy: In a monarchy, the monarch (King or Queen) has the power to make decisions and run the government.

The monarch may have a small group of people to discuss matters with them, but the final decision is taken by the monarch. The monarch does not have to explain its actions

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Democratic Governments

  • India has a democratic government. The democracy in India was achieved by a long struggle of the Indian people.
  • The main feature of democracy is that the people have the power to elect their leaders. Thus, democracy is ruled by the people because they rule themselves by participating in the making of these rules.
  • Nowadays, democratic governments are usually known as representative democracies. In representative democracy, people do not participate directly but choose their representatives through elections.
  • These representatives meet and make decisions for the entire population.

Universal Adult Franchise:  A government cannot be called democratic if it does not allow universal adult franchise. This means that all adults in the country are allowed to vote.

  • In the earliest government, only men who owned property and were educated were allowed to vote. This meant that women, the poor, the propertyless, and the uneducated were not allowed to vote.
  • In India, before independence, only a small minority had the right to vote and they determined the future of the majority of Indians.
  • Thus, national leaders including Mahatma Gandhi demanded that all adults have the right to vote. This is called a Universal Adult Franchise.
  • Gandhiji mentioned the need for the right to vote for all in his Journal 2 Young India in 1931.
  • Women’s struggle to vote was strengthened during the First World War. This movement is called the women’s suffrage movement as the term suffrage usually means the right to vote.
  • During the war, women did men’s work because men were away fighting. Women began organizing and managing different kinds of work. So, women began to be seen as being equally capable of making decisions.
  • The suffragettes3 called for the right to vote for all women. American women got the right to vote in 1920 and later UK allowed it in 1928.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2 Diversity And Discrimination

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 2 Diversity And Discrimination

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2  Difference and Prejudice

  • India is a diverse country. There are eight major religions in the world and all of these are practiced in India. There are more than 1600 languages and more than a hundred dance forms.
  • Diversity is not always recognized because people feel safe and secure with people who look, talk, dress, and think like them.
  • Sometimes, people meet other people who are very different from them. They find them strange and unfamiliar.
  • People also form certain attitudes and opinions about others who are different from them. For example, people see villagers as ignorant while they see people in cities as money-minded and lazy.
  • When the opinions of people about other people are always negative, then these become prejudices.
  • Prejudice means judging other people negatively or seeing them as inferior.
  • When people think that only one particular way is the best and right way to do things, they often disrespect other people who may have different ways of doing things.
  • For example, if one thinks that English is the best among all languages, he/she starts to judge other languages negatively. As a result, he/she might not respect people who speak languages other than English.
  • Prejudice can be formed about many things like people’s religious beliefs, the color of their skin, the region they come from, the accent they speak in, the clothes they wear, etc. Sometimes, people may get hurt because of strong prejudices.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2  Creating Stereotypes

  • When people fix someone into one image, it creates a stereotype. Stereotypes can be formed with respect to religion, sex, race, or economic background.
  • People have unique qualities and skills that make them different from others but stereotypes prevent us from seeing each person as a unique individual.
  • Stereotypes fit large numbers of people into only one pattern or type. They all prevent us from doing certain things that we might do well.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2  Inequality and Discrimination

  • Discrimination takes place when people act on the basis of their prejudices or stereotypes. It can take place for several reasons as follows
  • Cultural Discrimination People may be discriminated against because their customs or practices may be seen as inferior. People who may speak a certain language, follow a particular religion, live in specific regions, etc may experience discrimination.
  • Economic Discrimination People may be discriminated against due to their economic backgrounds. People who are poor experience discrimination in offices, hospitals, schools, etc.
  • Some people may experience both economic discrimination as well as cultural discrimination because they are poor and belong to groups whose culture is not valued.
  • For example, tribals or certain other religious communities.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2  Struggle for Equality

  • Equality is a value that can be achieved after doing a struggle for it. People’s struggles and positive actions by the government are necessary to achieve equality for all Indians.
  • During the struggle for freedom from British rule, the people were also involved in the struggle to be treated more equally.
  • Dalits, women, tribals, and peasants fought against the inequalities they experienced in their lives.
  • Dalits organized themselves to gain entry into temples. Women organized to demand equal rights to education as men.
  • Peasants and tribals organized to fight against money lenders and high interests charged by them.
  • Many Indian National Movement leaders fought against inequalities, of which Dr Ambedkar was the most prominent.
  • The leaders of our country wrote the constitution in a way to included such provisions in the Constitution that would ensure equality for all the citizens of India.
  • The Constitution of India specified the right to equality for the poor and other marginal communities.
  • The writers of the Constitution advocated respect for diversity and ensured equality irrespective of citizens belonging to different communities, religions, languages, etc.
  • Thus, India became a secular state where all religions and faiths have been practiced and followed without fear of discrimination.
  • Untouchability has been legally abolished by law. People are free to choose the kind of work according to their wishes and government jobs are open to all people.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 2  Dr BR Ambedkar and Struggle for Equality

  • Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891-1956) is called the father of the Indian Constitution. He fought for the rights of the Dalit community as he was born into the Mahar caste, which was considered untouchable.
  • His first experience of caste-based discrimination took place in 1901 when he had gone with his brothers and cousins to meet his father in Koregaon (now in Maharashtra).
  • Ambedkar was the first person from his caste who went to England to become a lawyer. He encouraged Dalit children to get an education and urged them to take on different kinds of government jobs in order to move out of the caste system.
  • He led many efforts for Dalits to gain entry into temples. Later in life, he converted to Buddhism in his search for a religion that treated all members equally.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Our Country India

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Social Science Chapter 6 Our Country India

  • India is a country with a large geographical expanse. It is surrounded by the lofty Himalayas in the North, the Arabian Sea in the West, the Bay of Bengal in the East, and the Indian Ocean in the South.
  • India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The North-South extent from Ladakh to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km and the East-West extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
  • The high mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface, and the coasts and islands lead to a diversity of landforms in India. It has a great diversity in climate, vegetation, and wildlife as well as in the language and culture.
  • According to the 2011 Census, India is the second most populated country in the world after China.

Locational Setting

  • India is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) passes almost through the middle of the country.
  • India extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes from South to North and between 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes from West to East.
  • As India has a great longitudinal extent of about 29°, there could be large differences in the local time of places located at two extreme points of India.
  • As the local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude, the difference between these two points would be of about two hours.
  • The Sun rises two hours earlier in the East (Arunachal Pradesh) than in the West (Gujarat).
  • To solve this problem, the local time of longitude of 82°30’E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time. This meridian or longitude is also termed the Standard Meridian of India.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 India’s Neighbours

  • India shares its land boundary with seven countries. These are China, Bhutan, and Nepal to the North, Pakistan and Afghanistan to the West, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the East.
  • Sri Lanka and Maldives are the island neighbours of India which lie across the sea to the South. The Palk Strait separates Sri Lanka from India.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Social Science Chapter 6 Our Country India India And Its Neighbouring Countries

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Political and Administrative Divisions

  • India is divided into 28 states and 8 union Territories for administrative purposes. Delhi is the national capital.
  • The states have been formed on the basis of languages.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Social Science Chapter 6 Our Country India Political Map of India

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Physical Divisions

India has a variety of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts, and islands.

Himalayan Mountain: In India, the snowcapped Himalayas are standing as sentinel in the North of India. Him and Alaya mean the abode of snow.

  • The Himalayan Mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges.
  • The Northernmost is the Great Himalayas or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the South of Himadri, having many popular hill stations. The Shivalik is the Southernmost range.

Northern Indian Plains: These lie to the South of the Himalayas and are generally level and flat. They are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, and their tributaries.

These river plains provide fertile land for cultivation thus, there is a high concentration of population in these plains.

Great Indian Desert:  It is found in the Western part of India. It consists of a dry, hot, and sandy stretch of land with very little vegetation.

Peninsular Plateau: It is situated to the South of the Northern plains. It is triangular in shape and its relief is highly uneven. Thus, it has many hill ranges and valleys. It is rich in minerals like coal and iron ore.

  • Aravalli hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border the plateau on the North-West side. The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges in the Peninsular plateau.
  • The rivers Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are West flowing rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea.
  • The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the West and the Eastern Ghats border it in the East. The Western Ghats are almost continuous while the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.

Coastal Plains:  Coastal plains lie to the West of Western Ghats and to the East of Eastern Ghats. The Western Coastal plains are very narrow, whereas the Eastern Coastal plains are much broader.

  • There are a number of East east-flowing rivers. The rivers IT w Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers have formed fertile deltas at their mouth For Example. Sundarbans delta.

Groups of Islands:  Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are two groups of islands found in India. Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea. These are coral islands located off the coast of Kerala.

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal. These islands were affected by the Tsunami in 2004. A tsunami is a huge sea wave generated due to an earthquake on the sea floor.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Geography Social Science Chapter 6 Our Country India Physical Division