CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Urban Livelihoods

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Social Science Chapter 8 Urban Livelihoods

Working On The Street

  • Many people in urban areas earn their livelihood by working on the street. For example; in a survey of Ahmedabad city, it was found that 12 percent of all the workers in the city were people working on the street.
  • These people sometimes sell things repair them or provide a service. They are not employed by anyone and work on their own.
  • Their shops are temporary structures that are sometimes dismantled by the police. So, they have no security. There are also some parts of the city, where they are prohibited from entering. There are vendors who sell things that are mostly prepared at home by their families. For example, those who sell food or snacks on the street, prepare most of these at home.
  • Street vending was earlier considered as an obstruction to traffic and to people walking. But, now it is recognized as a general benefit and as a right of people to earn their livelihood.
  • Hawking zones for hawkers2 have been suggested by the government in towns and cities. It has also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely. Hawkers need to be part of committees that are set up to make such decisions relating to them.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In The Market

  • In the urban market, there are a variety of shops selling sweets, toys, electronic goods, etc. The market also has small offices and shops that provide services such as banks, courier services, and others.
  • There are several businesspersons in the market who manage their own shops. These shops may be small or large and they sell different things.
  • The businesspersons are not employed by anyone but they employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers. Their shops are permanent and are given a license to do business by the Municipal Corporation.
  • The Municipal Corporation also decides on which day of the week the market has to remain closed.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In The Factory-Workshop Area

  • Many urban people are engaged in factories such as government factories. These factory people are employed on a casual basis i.e. they are required to come as and when the employer needs them.
  • They all are employed when the employer gets large orders or during certain seasons. At other times of the year, they have to find some other work.
  • Jobs are not permanent in a factory. If workers complain about their pay or working conditions, they are asked to leave. They have no job security, or protection if there is ill-treatment. They are also expected to work very long hours.
  • For example, in the cloth mill units, the workers work on day and night shifts, with each shift lasting 12 hours.

Knowledge Plus: Working in a call center is a new form of employment in big cities. A call center is a centralized office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/ customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc.

CBSE Notes For Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 In the Office Area

  • Most of the people in the city work in offices, factories, and government departments where they are employed as regular and permanent workers.
  • They get a regular salary and their work is clearly identified. They attend their office or factory regularly. Unlike casual workers, they will not be asked to leave if the factory does not have much work.

Being a permanent worker, they also get other benefits such as

  • Savings for Old Age A part of their salary is kept in a fund with the government. They will earn interest on these savings. After their retirement, they will get this money and can then live their life well.
  • Holidays They get off on Sundays and national holidays. They also get annual leave.
  • Medical Facilities They get medical facilities for themselves and family. The medical expenses are paid by their company up to a certain amount. They are also given medical leave without any cut in their salary when they fall ill.

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